The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA) requires federal agencies to explain the concrete public benefits they seek to produce and report annually on their progress toward these outcomes. GPRA mandates tracking of outcomes, as well as activities, to ensure that agencies focus on producing end results that citizens value. Annual performance reporting under GPRA started in fiscal year 1999. If GPRA works the way it is intended to work, then ultimately we should observe that funding for programs is closely related to the ability of those programs to achieve outcomes. At a minimum, we should observe federal managers using GPRA goals to manage programs for results.