District of Columbia (DC)
The HOAP index ranks District of Columbia near the bottom of the 51 jurisdictions analyzed with a score of 2.74
The Healthcare Openness and Access Project (HOAP) measures how open and accessible each state’s healthcare system is to patient and provider preferences. The overall HOAP index is the average of 10 categories, referred to as subindexes, each of which is in turn an average of multiple indicators.
The HOAP index ranks District of Columbia near the bottom of the 51 jurisdictions analyzed. Some of the state’s highest scores are in the Public Health Subindex and the Taxation Subindex and some of its lowest are in the Insurance Subindex and the Provider Regulation Subindex. District of Columbia’s score and rank in each subindex is given below, along with its score for each individual indicator.
For the overall index, the subindexes, and the indicators, 1 is the lowest score and 5 is the highest.
Corporate Subindex: Score: 3.00 (US mean: 2.59, median: 2.00), Rank: 17
A higher score indicates that healthcare professionals and others have greater flexibility with regard to ownership, business structure, and employment in the healthcare sector
|Indicator||State score||US mean|
|State allows the corporate practice of medicine|
|State allows businesses to employ licensed healthcare professionals||5.00||3.04|
|State allows nonlicensed individuals to own/operate medical entities||5.00||2.88|
|State allows licensed individuals to split fees with nonlicensed individuals||5.00||2.18|
Direct Primary Care Subindex: Score: 3.33 (US mean: 3.48, median: 3.33), Rank: 26
A higher score indicates the state’s environment is more conducive to the establishment of direct primary care (DPC) practices as an alternative method of financing primary care.
|Indicator||State score||US Mean|
|State has pro-DPC laws||5.00|
|State has higher market demand for DPC||2.00||2.96|
|State has more DPC practices per capita||5.00||3.53|
Insurance Subindex: Score: 1.60 (US mean: 3.44, median: 3.60), Rank: 50
A higher score indicates that insurers have greater flexibility to determine the structure and pricing of health insurance policies.
|Indicator||State score||US mean|
|State mandates fewer health insurance benefits||2.00||1.59|
Medical Liability Subindex: Score: 2.00 (US mean: 3.27, median: 3.33), Rank: 49
A higher score indicates that physicians and others are less constrained by the threat of malpractice litigation.
State physicians pay fewer malpractice actions
State physicians pay lower malpractice premiums
State has adopted more reforms to modulate malpractice litigation
Occupational Regulation Subindex: Score: 3.00 (US mean: 3.13, median: 3.00), Rank: 26
A higher score indicates that medical professionals have easier access to licensure and employment and greater discretion regarding the services they offer.
State allows medical licensure reciprocity with other states
State has fewer continuing medical education requirements
State allows nurse practitioners broad scope of practice
State has fewer optician licensing requirements
State allows direct-entry midwifery
Pharmaceutical Access Subindex: Score: 3.00 (US mean: 3.11, median: 3.00), Rank: 23
A higher score indicates that patients have easier access to certain classes of drugs, including experimental and unconventional treatments.
State allows greater access to experimental drugs
State allows access to medical marijuana
State allows easier access to pseudoephedrine
State allows access to oral contraceptives without a physician prescription
Provider Regulation Subindex: Score: 1.67 (US mean: 2.42, median: 2.67), Rank: 38
A higher score indicates that healthcare providers have greater flexibility to determine hospital and pharmacy operations.
State has fewer certificate-of-need restrictions
State puts fewer restrictions on compounding pharmacies
State lacks burdensome prescription monitoring mandates
Public Health Subindex: Score: 3.67 (US mean: 4.22, median: 4.33), Rank: 41
A higher score indicates that residents have easier access to substance abuse remedies and greater discretion when offering medical assistance to other people.
State allows access to e-cigarettes
State allows access to naloxone
State has strong “Good Samaritan” protection
Taxation Subindex: Score: 3.33 (US mean: 4.23, median: 4.33), Rank: 37
A higher score indicates that the state imposes a lower burden of taxation for certain healthcare services, financing methods, and devices.
State has fewer provider taxes
State has fewer health savings account (HSA) taxes
State has fewer medical device taxes
Telemedicine Subindex: Score: 2.75 (US mean: 3.01, median: 3.00), Rank: 30
A higher score indicates that the state’s environment is more conducive for telemedicine practitioners.
State reimburses Medicaid providers at parity for telemedicine
State has less restrictive telepresenter requirements
State reimburses Medicaid providers at parity for remote monitoring
State allows online prescribing
For a complete explanation of the methodology used to calculate District of Columbia’s HOAP index score, see the Healthcare Openness and Access.