Most well-known for his central role in the application of mathematics to economics alongside John von Neumann known as game theory, Oskar Morgenstern earned his PhD in political science from the University of Vienna in 1925 and trained under some of the earliest scholars of the Austrian tradition of economics – Friedrich von Wieser, Hans Mayer and Ludwig von Mises. In 1931, Morgenstern succeeded F.A. Hayek as the director of the Austrian Institute for Economic Research (which Hayek founded with Mises, and still exists today) when Hayek accepted a position with the London School of Economics. In 1935, he became a professor of economics at the University of Vienna and was an active participant in Karl Menger’s “Vienna Colloquium.” When Austria was annexed by Germany during his lecture tour in the United States, he became a professor of economics at Princeton University. In 1970, he joined the faculty at New York University.