March 22, 2021

Florida and Certificate-of-Need Programs 2020

How CON laws Affect Health Care Access, Quality, and Cost in Florida

Since 1973, Florida has restricted the supply of health care with certificate-of-need (CON) programs. These programs prohibit health care providers from entering new markets or making changes to their existing capacity without first gaining the approval of state regulators. Research shows that reforming or repealing these laws would improve both the quality and acessiblity of health care for Floridians while lowering its cost. 

To learn more about the cost and consquences of CON laws in Florida, download the state profile.

Healthcare Services that require a CON in Florida as of January 2020*

  • Air Ambulance
  • Ground Ambulance
  • Hospice
  • Intermediate Care Facilities (ICFs) for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities
  • New Hospitals or Hospital-Sized Investments
  • Nursing Home Beds / Long-Term Care Beds
  • Psychiatric Services
  • Substance/Drug Abuse
  • Swing Beds

CON restrictions are in addition to the standard licensing and training requirements for medical professionals, but are neither designed nor intended to ensure public health or ensure that medical professionals have the necessary qualifications to do their jobs. Instead, CON laws are specifically designed to limit the supply of health care and are traditionally justified with the claim that they reduce and control health care costs. The theory is that by restricting market entry and expansion, states will reduce overinvestment in facilities and equipment. In addition, many states—including Florida—justify CON programs as a way to cross-subsidize health care for the poor. Under these “charity care” requirements providers that receive a certificate of need are typically required to increase the amount of care they provide to the poor. These programs intend to create quid pro quo arrangements: state governments restrict competition, increasing the cost of health care for some, and in return medical providers use these contrived profits to increase the care they provide to the poor.

How to Reform State CON Laws

Eleven states have already done away with their CON regulations, and many legislators rightly see CON repeal as a common-sense way of improving health care in their states. While full repeal is best, there are still ways to make meaningful reforms happen even when full repeal is not feasible. 

Learn more about options for CON law reform.

*Florida no longer requires providers to obtain CONs prior to establishing general hospitals. Additionally, effective July 1, 2021, Florida will no longer require providers to obtain a CON prior to establishing children’s hospitals, women’s hospitals, specialty medical hospitals, rehabilitation hospitals, psychiatric care hospitals, substance abuse hospitals, and intensive residential treatment facility service centers for children.

Ambulance service CONs are often regulated by transportation agencies and not healthcare agencies. Because ambulance restrictions may not have the same implications as other CONs, some researchers do not include them in regression analyses.